Cocaine Drug Rehab

Cocaine Drug Rehab in Texas

HISTORICAL FACTS ABOUT COCAINE

Besides opium, morphine and heroin, there were cocaine-based drugs that added profits to the patent medicine industry and increased drug abuse and addiction in the in the 19th centruy in our country. Chewing coca leaves produces a mild stimulant effect and had been used by cultures in the Andes for over a thousand years, helping among other things to acclimate the human body to high altitudes, but it had never become popular in the United States or Europe. In 1860 "cocaine" was isolated in pure form, but there isn't any significant report of its use until 1883 when Dr. Theodor Aschenbrandt, a German military physician, secured a stable supply and issued it to the Bavarian soldier during maneuvers, noting the beneficial effect of suppressing fatigue.

Aschendrandt's writings on cocaine caught the fascination of a young Viennese neurologist, Sigmund Freud, who was suffering from chronic fatigue, depression and various neurotic symptoms. Freud tried the drug as well as giving it to a colleague who was suffering from a nervous disease and from morphine addiction and also to a patient with gastric disorders. Freud found the initial results to be favorable and wrote that cocaine was a "magical drug". In 1884, Freud wrote to his fiancée about his experiences with cocaine:

"If all goes well, I will write an essay on it, and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it. I have other hopes and intentions about it. I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion, and with the most brilliant success…. In short it is only now that I feel that I am a doctor, since I have helped one patient and hope to help more."1

After pushing the drug on more patients and colleagues, Freud gathered a following of believers, but within a few years, there were an increasing number of reports of compulsive use, drug abuse, addiction and undesirable side effects to the cocaine.

1. Ernest Jones, The life and work of Sigmund Freud, vol. 1 (New York: Basic Books, 1953), 81; Freud's paper "Uber Coca" (On Coca) as been reprinted in cocaine papers by Sigmund Freud, ed. Robert Byck (New York: New American Library, 1975), 49-73.

Cocaine is a strongly addictive stimulant drug that comes from the leaves of the coca plant, with the majority of the supplies coming from South America . Some forms of cocaine are used in medicines, such as local anesthetics for eye, ear, and throat surgery.

It is usually sold on the street as a fine white powder and is generally either sniffed into the nose or injected by needle into a vein, with the latter being the type of administration that is most common with cocaine addiction. When cocaine is boiled or cooked with sodium bicarbonate, it is converted into a freebase form called crack cocaine and is more addictive that before and is relative cheap per dose and devastatingly expensive during addiction. This can then be smoked and results in a brief, intense high.

Those with Cocaine addiction introduce the drug into the body through many types of routes. It can be rubbed into the mucous tissues of the body, inhaled by smoking or snorting, infected into one's veins, or the cocoa leaves can be chewed to release the active substances into the membranes of the mouth and throat.

Cocaine passes quickly into the brain and causes a buildup of dopamine by blocking the normal recycling process. These high levels of dopamine stimulate the nerve cells and cause a feeling of euphoria.

Since Cocaine is a fat-soluble compound, the body has the "wisdom" to store this drug in the fat tissue of the body so that it can be released in measured doses that the liver and kidneys can then metabolize and expel. This phenomenon causes the cocaine user to have cocaine in his blood and brain for months and even years after he has quit using the substance. This causes the user to crave the drug long after it's ingestion and is one of the major reasons why so many cocaine drug rehabilitation centers are not successful in graduating persons with long-term success in staying drug-free.

The effects of cocaine can be felt in literally seconds and provide a dramatic high that last three to five minutes. This is seen most dramatically with crack cocaine. A craving for more of the same immediately follows this feeling of euphoria.

Dependency develops in less that two weeks of use and some research indicates that psychological dependency develops after the first use. Tolerance develops quickly and the desire for more and more is an endless struggle.

In the short-term, with a normal dose, one feels energetic, restless talkative, euphoric, with an increase in pulse rate, temperature, blood pressure, metal alertness, followed by a temporary decrease in apatite.

In large doses one will feel bizarre, and, perhaps violent a paranoid feelings, muscle tremors, dizziness and a sense that the room is spinning. People with cocaine addiction may also experience hallucinations, strong addiction and cravings, will begin to neglect everything except their habit, intense paranoid ideation, a feeling that reality isn't real, extreme irritability, and, of course tolerance and the need from more and more cocaine. Weight loss is also associated with cocaine addiction in the same manner that it is with amphetamines. Once the drug is removed, the person suffering from cocaine addiction may have extreme depression, anxiety, nightmares and other sleep disorders.

The main risk of addiction is the unrealistic behaviors that cause one to irresponsibly spend money and violate ones ethical code.

Long-term use will cause physical decline due to the lack of good nutrition and sleep. One can also experience abnormal heart conditions, breathing problems, heart attacks, problems with the nasal septum or passages, an increased risk for infections, thinking problems, seizures and strokes.

Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug of abuse. Once having tried cocaine, an individual cannot predict or control the extent to which he or she will continue to use the drug. Cocaine is often thought of as being a drug of the 80's and has been replaced by crack, but Colorado Drug Rehab receives many calls from people throughout Colorado that are snorting cocaine and report that they don't do crack because of its addiction potential. We have found that there is an abundance of misinformation about addiction by most users and even though crack does lead very quickly to a strong and highly compulsive addiction, cocaine is not much less addicting if used on a frequent basis.

The major routes of administration of cocaine are sniffing or snorting, injecting, and smoking (including free-base and crack cocaine). Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. Injecting is the act of using a needle to release the drug directly into the bloodstream. Smoking involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection.

There is great risk whether cocaine is ingested by inhalation (snorting), injection, or smoking. It appears that compulsive cocaine use may develop even more rapidly if the substance is smoked rather than snorted. Smoking allows extremely high doses of cocaine to reach the brain very quickly and brings an intense and immediate high. The injecting drug user is at risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV infection/AIDS if needles or other injection equipment are shared.

Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that interferes with the reabsorption process of dopamine, a chemical messenger associated with pleasure and movement. Dopamine is released as part of the brain's reward system and is involved in the high that characterizes cocaine consumption.

Physical effects of cocaine use include constricted peripheral blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. The duration of cocaine's immediate euphoric effects, which include hyper-stimulation, reduced fatigue, and mental clarity, depends on the route of administration. The faster the absorption, the more intense the high. On the other hand, the faster the absorption, the shorter the duration of action. The high from snorting may last 15 to 30 minutes, while that from smoking may last 5 to 10 minutes. Increased use can reduce the period of stimulation.

Users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. An appreciable tolerance to the high may be developed, and many addicts report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first exposure. Scientific evidence suggests that the powerful neuropsychologic reinforcing property of cocaine is responsible for an individual's continued use, despite harmful physical and social consequences. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. However, there is no way to determine who is prone to sudden death.

High doses of cocaine and/or prolonged use can trigger paranoia. Smoking crack cocaine can produce a particularly aggressive paranoid behavior in users. When addicted individuals stop using cocaine, they often become depressed. This also may lead to further cocaine use to alleviate depression. Prolonged cocaine snorting can result in ulceration of the mucous membrane of the nose and can damage the nasal septum enough to cause it to collapse. Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.

When people mix cocaine and alcohol consumption, they are compounding the danger each drug poses and unknowingly forming a complex chemical experiment within their bodies. NIDA-funded researchers have found that the human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, that intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects, while possibly increasing the risk of sudden death. For more information go to this government sponsored site: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/cocaine/index.html

Important and unique information for anyone that want to get help for cocaine drug rehabilitation center:

In seeking advice for these conditions, find a program that demonstrates a high success in rehabilitating clients with cocaine addiction. You should look for a program that doesn't see this addiction as a disease or a moral problem, but has the technology to address the cocaine addiction and can demonstrate its success statistically and through testimonials from graduates of the program that can speak to you directly. As mentioned earlier, these program universally employ the bio-physical approach to handling the accumulation of the cocaine in the fat tissue of the body and represent successful outcomes far above 50% of those that complete the program.

Cocaine also is a significant drug threat to Texas. Powdered cocaine and crack cocaine are readily available and frequently abused throughout the state; however, crack cocaine is more readily available in larger metropolitan areas such as Austin, Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio.

The number of treatment admissions for cocaine abuse to TCADA-funded treatment facilities exceeded the number of admissions for any other illicit drug in 2002.According to the 2002 Texas School Survey of Substance Use Among Students: Grades 7-12, almost 14 percent of students in grades 7 through 12 living in the border region reported using powdered cocaine at least once in their lifetime compared with 7 percent of students living in other parts of the state. Cocaine-related deaths in Texas reached historic levels in 2001. According to TCADA, there were 491 cocaine-related deaths in 2001, an increase from 424 in 2000, 413 in 1999, 382 in 1998, and 338 in 1997.

In 2001, wholesale cocaine prices nationwide ranged from $12,000 to $35,000 per kilogram. In 2000, the price for South American heroin ranged from $50,000 to $200,000 per kilogram, Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin ranged from $40,000 to $190,000 per kilogram, and Mexican heroin cost between $13,200 and $175,000 per kilogram. Methamphetamine prices at the distribution level ranged from $3,500 per pound in areas of California and Texas to $21,000 per pound in the Eastern United States. Retail methamphetamine prices ranged from $400 to $3,000 per ounce. (ONDCP)